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Braindumps for "640-816" Exam

Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2

 Question 1.
Switches ITK1 and ITK2 are connected as shown below:

Study the Exhibit carefully. Which ports could safely be configured with Port Fast? (Choose two)

A. Switch ITK1 - port Fa1/2
B. Switch ITK2 - port Fa1/2
C. Switch ITK1 - port Fa1/3
D. Switch ITK2 - port Fa1/3
E. Switch ITK1 - port Fa1/1
F. None of the ports should use port fast

Answer:  C, D

Using Port Fast:
1. Immediately brings an interface configured as an access or trunk port to the forwarding state from a blocking state, bypassing the listening and learning states
2. Normally used for single server/workstation can be enabled on a trunk
So, Port fast can only be enabled to a switch port attaching to workstation or a server.


Question 2,
You need to configure two ITCertKeys switches to exchange VLAN information.

Which protocol provides a method of sharing VLAN configuration information between these two switches?

B. 802.1Q
G. None of the above

Answer:  E

VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a Cisco proprietary Layer 2 messaging protocol that manages the addition, deletion, and renaming of VLANs on a network-wide basis. Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) Trunk Protocol (VTP) reduces administration in a switched network. When you configure a new VLAN on one VTP server, the VLAN is distributed through all switches in the domain. This reduces the need to configure the same VLAN everywhere. To do this VTP carries VLAN information to all the switches in a VTP domain. VTP advertisements can be sent over ISL, 802.1q, IEEE 802.10 and LANE trunks. VTP traffic is sent over the management VLAN (VLAN1), so all VLAN trunks must be configured to pass VLAN1. VTP is available on most of the Cisco Catalyst Family products.

Question 3.
ITCertKeys has implemented the use of the Virtual Trunking Protocol (VTP). 

Which statement below accurately describes a benefit of doing this?

A. VTP will allow physically redundant links while preventing switching loops
B. VTP will allow switches to share VLAN configuration information
C. VTP will allow a single port to carry information to more than one VLAN
D. VTP will allow for routing between VLANs
E. None of the above

Answer:  B

Question 4.
Two ITCertKeys switches are connected together as shown in the diagram below: 

Based on the information shown above, what will be the result of issuing the following commands:
Switch1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/5
Switch1(config-if)# switchport mode access
Switch1(config-if)# switchport access vlan 30

A. The VLAN will be added to the database, but the VLAN information will not be passed on to 
    the Switch2 VLAN database.
B. The VLAN will be added to the database and VLAN 30 will be passed on as a VLAN to add to 
    the Switch2 VLAN database.
C. The VLAN will not be added to the database, but the VLAN 30 information will be passed on 
    as a VLAN to the Switch2 VLAN database.
D. The VLAN will not be added to the database, nor will the VLAN 30 information be passed on 
    as a VLAN to the Switch2 VLAN database.
E. None of the above

Answer:  A

The three VTP modes are described below:
Server: This is the default for all Catalyst switches. You need at least one server in your VTP domain to propagate VLAN information throughout the domain. The switch must be in server mode to be able to create, add, or delete VLANs in a VTP domain. You must also change VTP information in server mode, and any change you make to a switch in server mode will be advertised to the entire VTP domain.

Client: In client mode, switches receive information from VTP servers; they also send and receive updates, but they can't make any changes. Plus, none of the ports on a client switch can be added to a new VLAN before the VTP server notifies the client switch of the new VLAN. 
Here's a hint: if you want a switch to become a server, first make it a client so that it receives all the correct VLAN information, then change it to a server-much easier!
Transparent: Switches in transparent mode don't participate in the VTP domain, but they'll still forward VTP advertisements through any configured trunk links. These switches can't add and delete VLANs because they keep their own database-one they do not share with other switches. Transparent mode is really only considered locally significant.

In our example, the switch is configured for transparent mode. In transparent mode the local VLAN information can be created but that VLAN information will not be advertised to the other switch.

Question 5.
A ITCertKeys switch is configured with all ports assigned to VLAN 2. In addition, all ports are configured as full-duplex FastEthernet. 

What is the effect of adding switch ports to a new VLAN on this switch?

A. The additions will create more collisions domains.
B. IP address utilization will be more efficient.
C. More bandwidth will be required than was needed previously.
D. An additional broadcast domain will be created.
E. The possibility that switching loops will occur will increase dramatically.

Answer:  D

A VLAN is a group of hosts with a common set of requirements that communicate as if they were attached to the same wire, regardless of their physical location. A VLAN has the same attributes as a physical LAN, but it allows for end stations to be grouped together even if they are not located on the same LAN segment. Networks that use the campus-wide or end-to-end VLANs logically segment a switched network based on the functions of an organization, project teams, or applications rather than on a physical or geographical basis. For example, all workstations and servers used by a particular workgroup can be connected to the same VLAN, regardless of their physical network connections or interaction with other workgroups. 

Network reconfiguration can be done through software instead of physically relocating devices. Cisco recommends the use of local or geographic VLANs that segment the network based on IP subnets. Each wiring closet switch is on its own VLAN or subnet and traffic between each switch is routed by the router. The reasons for the Distribution Layer 3 switch and examples of a larger network using both the campus-wide and local VLAN models will be discussed later. A VLAN can be thought of as a broadcast domain that exists within a defined set of switches. Ports on a switch can be grouped into VLANs in order to limit unicast, multicast, and broadcast traffic flooding. Flooded traffic originating from a particular VLAN is only flooded out ports belonging to that VLAN, including trunk ports, so a switch that connects to another switch will normally introduce an additional broadcast domain.

Question 6.
A new switch is installed in the ITCertKeys network. This switch is to be configured so that VLAN information will be automatically distributed to all the other Cisco Catalyst switches in the network.

Which of the conditions below have to be met in order for this to occur? (Choose all that apply).

A. The switch that will share the VLAN information must be in the VTP Server mode.
B. The switches must be in the same VTP domain.
C. The switch that will share the VLAN information must be configured as the root bridge.
D. The switches must be configured to use the same VTP version.
E. The switches must be configured to use the same STP version.
F. The switches must be configured to use the same type of ID tagging.
G. The switches must be connected over VLAN trunks.

Answer:  A, B, F, G

For the VLAN information to pass automatically throughout the network, VTP must be set up correctly. In order for VTP to work, a VTP server is needed, the VLAN's must be in the same VTP domain, and the encapsulation on each end of the trunk must both set to either 802.1Q or ISL.

Incorrect Answers:
C. Root bridges and other functions of the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) have no impact of the VTP configuration.
D, E. There is only one version of VTP and STP.

Question 7.
A network administrator needs to force a high-performance switch that is located in the MDF to become the root bridge for a redundant path switched network. 

What can be done to ensure that this switch assumes the role of the Root Bridge?

A. Configure the switch so that it has a lower priority than other switches in the network.
B. Assign the switch a higher MAC address than the other switches in the network have.
C. Configure the switch for full-duplex operation and configure the other switches for half-duplex 
D. Connect the switch directly to the MDF router, which will force the switch to assume the role of 
    root bridge.
E. Establish a direct link from the switch to all other switches in the network.
F. None of the above

Answer:  A

For all switches in a network to agree on a loop-free topology, a common frame of reference must exist. This reference point is called the Root Bridge. The Root Bridge is chosen by an election process among all connected switches. Each switch has a unique Bridge ID (also known as the bridge priority) that it uses to identify itself to other switches. The Bridge ID is an 8-byte value. 2 bytes of the Bridge ID is used for a Bridge Priority field, which is the priority or weight of a switch in relation to all other switches. The other 6 bytes of the Bridge ID is used for the MAC Address field, which can come from the Supervisor module, the backplane, or a pool of 1024 addresses that are assigned to every Supervisor or backplane depending on the switch model. This address is hardcoded, unique, and cannot be changed.

The election process begins with every switch sending out BPDUs with a Root Bridge ID equal to its own Bridge ID as well as a Sender Bridge ID. The latter is used to identify the source of the BPDU message. Received BPDU messages are analyzed for a lower Root Bridge ID value. If the BPDU message has a Root Bridge ID (priority) of the lower value than the switch's own Root Bridge ID, it replaces its own Root Bridge ID with the Root Bridge ID announced in the BPDU. If two Bridge Priority values are equal, then the lower MAC address takes preference.

Question 8.
Which of the protocols below, operates at Layer 2 of the OSI model, and is used to maintain a loop-free network?

F. None of the above

Answer:  B

STP (spanning tree protocol) operates on layer 2 to prevent loops in switches and bridges.

Incorrect Answers:
A, C. RIP and IGRP are routing protocols, which are used at layer 3 to maintain a loop free routed environment.
D. CDP does indeed operate at layer 2, but it doest not provide for a loop free topology. CDP is used by Cisco devices to discover information about their neighbors.
E. VTP is the VLAN Trunking Protocol, used to pass VLAN information through switches. It relies on the STP mechanism to provide a loop free network.

Question 9.
By default, which of the following factors determines the spanning-tree path cost?

A. It is the individual link cost based on latency
B. It is the sum of the costs based on bandwidth
C. It is the total hop count
D. It is dynamically determined based on load
E. None of the above

Answer:  B

"The STP cost is an accumulated total path cost based on the available bandwidth of each of the links."

Reference: Sybex CCNA Study Guide 4th Edition (Page 323)
Note: A path cost value is given to each port. The cost is typically based on a guideline established as part of 802.1d. According to the original specification, cost is 1,000 Mbps (1 gigabit per second) divided by the bandwidth of the segment connected to the port. Therefore, a 10 Mbps connection would have a cost of (1,000/10) 100. To compensate for the speed of networks increasing beyond the gigabit range, the standard cost has been slightly modified. 
The new cost values are: You should also note that the path cost can be an arbitrary value assigned by the network administrator, instead of one of the standard cost values.

Incorrect Answers:
A, D: The STP process does not take into account the latency or load of a link. STP does not recalculate the link costs dynamically.
C. Hop counts are used by RIP routers to calculate the cost of a route to a destination. The STP process resides at layer 2 of the OSI model, where hop counts are not considered.

Question 10.
What is the purpose of the spanning-tree algorithm in a switched LAN?

A. To provide a monitoring mechanism for networks in switched environments.
B. To manage VLANs across multiple switches.
C. To prevent switching loops in networks with redundant switched paths.
D. To segment a network into multiple collision domains.
E. To prevent routing loops in networks.

Answer:  C

STP is used in LANs with redundant paths or routes to prevent loops in a layer 2 switched or bridged LAN.

Incorrect Answers:
A, B: The primary purpose of STP is to prevent loops, not for monitoring or management of switches or VLANs.
D. VLANs are used to segment a LAN into multiple collision domains, but the STP process alone does not do this.
E. Routers are used to prevent routing loops at layer 3 of the OSI model. STP operates at layer 2.


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